Thursday, March 27, 2014

Adam Harman, Pioneer on the New River, 1745, Part 5

Originally published in The Smithfield Review, Vol. 13, 2009, Last week's story of Adam Harman focused mainly on his attempts to claim land along the New River. It ended with a reference to the unrest between Indians and settlers. This week's portion of the story describes those perilous times:

This unrest began with raids on property. In April 1749, Adam Harman earned the dubious distinction of being the first settler to have his cabin raided by Indians and his skins stolen:

A party of seven Indians robbed the house of Adam Harman, probably on New river, of nine deer skins and one elk skin; that the next day six Indians robbed the same house of fourteen deer skins and one elk skin; and that the day following a number of Indians came and took away seventy-three deer skins and six elk skins. This shows also that game was abundant and that Harman was a famous hunter. This was said to have been the first depredation by the Indians on the whites west of the Alleghany.[1]

This attack created or intensified friction between Adam Harman and Jacob Castle, another German immigrant who is listed in Augusta County Court Records Order Book 1 on November 19, 1746, as one of the road builders to the Adam Harman place with Adam Harman as overseer.[2] Harman suspected Castle of instigating the raid.[3] A note in the records seems to reverse the action, however. On April 22, 1749, Augusta County Court brought charges against “Valentine and Adam Herman for violent robbery of the goods of Jacob Castlean. . . .”[4] In addition, in Original Petitions and Papers Filed in the County Court, 1749, jailor John Cunningham is ordered “to keep the following . . . Adam and Valentine Herman.”[5] 

A few weeks later on May 17, 1749, Adam Harman brought charges against Castle “for threatening to aid the French” and Castle was “ordered to be arrested and brought before the court on next Monday.”[6] A few days later on May 22, Castle was “acquitted in charge of treason in going over to assist the French.”[7] Whether the raid was instigated by Castle or not, raids such as the one on Harman’s place signaled worse times to come for the settlers along the New River as rivalries between the British and the French increased in the Ohio Valley. When the French and Indian War erupted in 1755, bloodshed extended southward into the New River Valley.

At the time of this dispute, “Adam Harman was captain of foot and overseer of the main road through the community. . . . He had charge of the road to the river and over the bridge to the Roanoke.”[8] Apparently the dispute did not damage his trustworthy reputation, for between the raid on his furs in 1749 and his rescue of Mary Ingles in 1755, he served in significant ways to help defend the region from French-instigated Indian attacks by Shawnee warriors.

On August 19, 1752, Adam “qualified Captain of a Troop of Horse” and his brother Jacob “qualified Cornet.”[9] In October 1754 when the General Assembly enlisted the aid of local militias, Adam was designated a captain and Jacob an ensign of a “troop of horse” under Colonel James Patton. “For the residents of the New and Holston Rivers, 1755 was probably the worst year of the war. The murder of some of the citizens, the capture of others, and the loss of [General William] Braddock’s army [on July 9] caused much alarm.”[10] Despite the fact that Governor Robert Dinwiddie had taken measures to ensure the safety of the settlers, such as sending Captain Andrew Lewis and a group of forty or fifty men “to Augusta county to protect the frontier,” the vicious attacks persisted. The governor then sent “blank commissions . . . by Colonel Patton for officers for a company of fifty men for the further protection of the inhabitants. . . .”[11] Despite the governor’s efforts, the attacks continued unabated:

Most of the outrages . . . were committed on New River and Holston. From October 1754 to August 1755 twenty-one individuals were killed, seven wounded and nine taken prisoner. Among those killed were Lieutenant [William] Wright and Colonel Patton, both being caught without guards. Lieutenant Wright and two of his soldiers were killed on Reed Creek on July 12, and the Draper’s Meadow massacre in which Colonel Patton was killed took place on July 30 or 31. In this Massacre Casper Barger, Mrs. Eleanor Draper and a young Draper child were killed. James Cull was wounded, Mrs. Mary Draper Ingles and two children, Mrs. Betty Draper, and Henry Leonard, were taken prisoners.”[12]

These murders and kidnappings terrorized the settlers, and most of them fled from their homes to safer, more populous places, and “the Holson, New River, and Greenbrier settlements were practically abandoned. This left the Roanoke and James River country the southwestern frontier and thus it remained until the close of the war.”[13]

The mass exodus created problems keeping the local militia, of which Adam Harman was a member, together and active. When Colonel John Buchanan reported this to Governor Dinwiddie, the governor replied, indignantly, that those who would not stay to defend their homes should not expect help from him.[14] Despite the governor’s remonstrance, the “exodus from the lands on the Western Waters was dramatic. . . . There was difficulty on the roads and ridges, ‘for the crowds were flying as if every moment were death.’”[15] 

Whether Adam Harman continued to serve with the militia or whether he also fled is not known for certain. His family circumstances suggest that he may have stayed. By this time, his wife Louisa Katrina was deceased, having died March 18, 1749.[16] Furthermore, his sons were as yet unmarried, and men without family responsibilities sometimes take greater risks than those who have wives and children. Evidence indicates that some of the Harmans stayed, an ill-fated decision for them, for in 1756 Jacob Harman and a son were killed by Indians on Neck Creek.[17] The following year, Valentine Harman was killed by Indians on the New River.[18]

[1] Harman, Harman Genealogy, p. 52. Reference to this incident occurs also in Charles Kerr, William Elsey Connelley, and Ellis Merton Coulter, History of Kentucky, Vol. 1, (Chicago, American Historical Society, 1922), p. 78. The entire text of this book is available on Google Books.
[2] Patton and Buchanan Survey Report, Augusta County, Virginia, Order Book 1, 1745-1747, p. 130; Chalkley, Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement, p. 433; Kegley and Kegley, Early Adventures, p. 49.
[3] Johnston, A History of the Middle New River Settlements,  p.10.
[4] Chalkley, Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement, p. 433; Kegley and Kegley, Early Adventures, p. 177.
[5] Chalkley, Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement, p. 432.
[6] Chalkley, Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement, p. 26; Johnson, James Patton and the Appalachian Colonists, p. 65.
[7] Chalkley, Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement, p. 38.
[8] Kegley and Kegley, Early Adventures, p. 177. Harman (Harman Genealogy, p. 52) also notes that Adam Harman was a constable and an overseer of the road on the New River, 52.
[9] Chalkley, Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement, p. 53. A troop of horse was a British term for a company of cavalry; the cornet was the officer who carried the colors.
[10] Kegley and Kegley, Early Adventures, p. 54.
[11] Kegley and Kegley, Early Adventures, p. 54.
[12] Kegley and Kegley, Early Adventures, p. 55. Other accounts of the Draper’s Meadows massacre can be found in Hale, Trans-Allegheny Pioneers, pp. 29-31; Johnson, James Patton and the Appalachian Colonists, p. 201-06;
Johnston, A History of the Middle New River Settlements, p. 19-20; Lewis Preston Summers, History of Southwest Virginia, 1746-1786, Washington County, 1777-1780 (Richmond, Va.: J. L. Hill Printing Co., 1903), pp. 56-7. The entire text of this book is available on Google Books. Also Ellen Epperson Brown examines various versions of the story in “What Really Happened at Drapers Meadows” The Evolution of a Frontier Legend,” Smithfield Review, vol. 7 (2003): pp. 5-21.
[13] Kegley and Kegley, Early Adventures, p. 55.
[14] Kegley and Kegley, Early Adventures, p.55.
[15] Kegley and Kegley, Early Adventures, p. 56.
[16] Harman, Harman Genealogy, p. 50.
[17]Kegley and Kegley, Early Adventures, p. 222; J. A. Waddell, Waddell's Annals of Augusta County, Virginia from 1726 To 1871, Second ed., (Rockwood, Tenn.: EagleRidge Technologies, 2006), 155. (Original work second ed. published 1902),
[18] F. B. Kegley, Kegley’s Virginia Frontier (Roanoke, Va.: The Southwest Virginia Historical Society, 1938), p. 128. Waddell, Waddell’s Annals of Augusta County, p. 155, shows a different year; he quotes William Preston’s
journal, which lists the date of Valentine Harman’s death as March 1756. A limited text of this source is available on Google Books. 

(c) 2014, Z. T. Noble

Wednesday, March 19, 2014

Adam Harman, Pioneer on the New River, 1745, Part 4

This is a continuation of an article about Adam Harman published in The Smithfield Review, Vol. 13, 2009. See posts on Feb. 27,  Mar. 5, and Mar. 12, for the previous parts of the story.

For all of the settlers coming into the New River region, claiming a piece of land for themselves and their families was their priority. To secure ownership of lands, they had to meet requirements stated in land grants offered by the British government, the first of which was the Woods River Grant. Some key terms of the grant were critical for them to follow:

Any person who would purchase any part or parcel of the land prior to the next May court should have it at the rate of four pounds and five shillings per hundred acres, to be paid on the first day of May 1748 and the remainder on the first of April 1749 with interest from that date. Persons buying land had to settle, cultivate, improve, and live on it before April 15, 1748, and pay twenty-five shillings on taking it up. No person could sell or dispose of his right until he had been in possession of his patent or deed for six months. Each person taking up land had to mark it and ‘put up some logs’ and mention the quantity of acres held. . . . Any person taking up land of any less quantity of one-thousand acres in one entire survey was to pay the surveyor’s fee for such land.”[1]

To obtain the grant of 100,000 acres, James Patton hired John Buchanan to survey the area.[2] Buchanan’s records reveal that the Harmans were, indeed, living in the area of Tom’s Creek on the New River.

Prior to his surveying trips, John Buchanan traveled throughout the region starting on October 4, 1745 and returning home October 29, 1745. During this trip, Buchanan kept a journal recording his stops and the people he met along the way. Among them, he names Adam Harman and his brothers Jacob and Valentine. In addition, in the Woods River Entry Book, Buchanan records the following on October 17, 1745: “Adam Harman one place called Tom’s place and one for Adam Harman Junior on Thorn Spring the land he is to Emprove on neither is he to sell or Dispose of it in anay shape, other wise his property is forfeited.”[3] On October 18, Buchanan notes in his journal that he “had ye esteate [sic] of William Marks [Mack] apprised by Adam and Jacob Harmon—no other person could be had.”[4] Buchanan asked Adam and Jacob Harman to appraise the estate of William Mack for whom the present day Max (corrupted from Mack’s) Meadows was named. Buchanan implies that the Harman men were asked to conduct the appraisal because no one else was willing or able to do it.[5]

That same day, Buchanan notes that Adam Harman traveled with him to the home of Charles Hart,[6] a “squatter on the Springfield tract who thought he bought a right from George Robinson,”[7] one of the men to whom the Woods River grant was issued.[8] Harman tried to help Buchanan settle the dispute. Buchanan notes, “This morning before day Adam Harman and Hart had a long conference in Dutch about ye land.”[9] Harman spoke both German and English.[10] On October 22, Buchanan records meeting with a group of people at the home of Jacob Harman, whose home was located on the big Horseshoe Bend of the New River.[11] On October 24 in the Wood’s River Book Buchanan records that he “sold to Valentin Harman 1,000 acres on ye head of Pine Run” which he must “emediatly . . . settle & Emprove thereon or forfite his property. . . .”[12] Buchanan’s notes provide a valuable record showing names of those who lived in the area in the fall of 1745.

Later land-grant records show that surveys for Adam and Jacob Harman were completed in 1750.[13] According to a November 7, 1750 entry in these records, Adam Harman claimed 500 acres “in Augusta county on the southwest side of New river known by the name of the ‘Horseshoe’” in addition to 500 acres in the same county on the east side of New River beginning at the mouth of Tom’s Creek.14 Augusta County Entry Book 1 lists as its first entry, “1750, Adam Harman, 400 acres at a large spring 6 miles above Wolf Creek, on New River.”[15] Additional records from 1750 list Adam Harman among several men who “were to have 100,000 acres on the New and Holston rivers and the waters of each.”[16]

Also in the same year, James Patton’s papers show that Adam Harman, Jacob Harman, Valentine Harman, and Valentine Sevier “obtained a grant for 7,000 acres lying on both sides of the Blue Stone Creek, beginning about three miles from where the said creek runs into Wood’s River, thence up the same and its several branches.”17 During this time, Harman’s ford “at the lower end of the bottom was an important crossing of the river, and was not abandoned until Samuel Pepper’s ferry was adopted as the main crossing.”18

Map of Harman Locations on the New River

Although Adam Harman received patent for his land at the mouth of Tom’s Creek on November 7, 1752, records show that he failed to pay quitrents and to cultivate and improve the tract; consequently, William Thompson, James Patton’s executor, “brought suit to the lieutenant governor to obtain a new patent,” which he accomplished on September 25, 1762.19 The suit apparently created enmity between the two men, which is implicit in the November 16, 1763 entry in the August County Court Records ordering “Adam Harmon to be bound to peace toward Wm. Thompson.”20

In fact, the Harman name appears on grants in numerous places in the area, so many places that M. B. Kegley and F. B. Kegley observe, “It is apparent that the Harmans were interested in tracts of land on Pine Run, Walker’s Creek, Bluestone, Sinking Creek, as well as the tracts on Tom’s Creek and the Horseshoe, but their large selections were more than they could ‘settle and improve’ and as a result most of their claims were forfeited.”[21] One might also infer, given the danger from attacks on the settlements perpetrated by Shawnee warriors, which intensified with the start of the French and Indian War, that the Harman families may have abandoned their tracts for that reason as well.22

1 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 9.
2 A reference to John Buchanan’s journey was made in The Smithfield Review, Vol. 6, 95.
3 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 10.
4 Goodridge Wilson, Smyth County History and Traditions, (Kinsport, Tenn.: Kinsport Press, Inc., 1932), 14. The entire text of Buchanan’s journal is in Wilson’s book. Also, Kegley, 10.
5 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 10.
6 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 10. Also, Goodridge Wilson, 14.
7 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 9. Also, Goodridge Wilson, 11.
8 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 8.
9 Goodridge Wilson, 14.
10 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 223. Because Adam Harman spoke bothGerman and English, he seems to have fit in with the English-speaking settlers better than some of the other Germans who spoke only German.
11 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 10. Also, Goodridge Wilson, 15.
12 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 11.
13 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 12, 218. Also John Newton Harman, 52.
14 John Newton Harman, 52, 329. Also, M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 218.
15 John Newton Harman, 52. Also, M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 182.
16 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 13.
17 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 13. Also, Patricia Givens Johnson, 90.
18 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 219.
19 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 177.
20 Lyman Chalkley, Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement in Virginia: Extracted from the Original Court Records of August County, 1745-1800, (Roselyn, Va.: The Commonwealth Printing Co., 1912), 110.
21 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 219.
22 M. B. Kegley and  F. B. Kegley, 15.

Wednesday, March 12, 2014

Adam Harman, Pioneer on the New River, 1745, Part 3

This third part of an article on Adam Harman, originally published in The Smithfield Review, Vol. 13, discusses some controversy over locations where Adam Harman lived. In the previous segment, I covered Harman’s immigration to America, his family, and the time frame of his arrival on the New River, especially in relation to the Draper/Ingles families.

A point of further confusion arises concerning the location of Adam Harman’s place cited in the survey. The Giles County Virginia History of Families cites the Patton and Buchanan survey as evidence that Harman had been living in present day Giles County “long enough for the place to be well known, even at that early date.”[1] The Giles County history further explains that Harman’s place was known as Gunpowder Springs2 due to a strong sulphur odor from a spring nearby, that Harman’s settlement was a welcome stopover for families moving westward, and that from this settlement, “a trail was established up the river to Ingle’s Ferry. . . .”3 However, Kegley and Kegley note that the location mentioned in the Patton and Buchanan survey was “probably at the mouth of Tom’s Creek . . . where there was a convenient ford.”4

The problem with the Gunpowder Springs location is that it is further north along the New River than Tom’s Creek. Despite strong evidence that Adam Harman built a blockhouse at Gunpowder Springs, there seems to be no record of him having owned land in present day Giles County,5 the place where he found Mary Ingles suffering from exhaustion and starvation as she neared the end of her journey in 1755.

Map showing Harman locations on the New River.
A possible explanation for Adam Harman and his sons having been at the Gunpowder Springs location in 1755 is that they were on a lengthy hunting expedition known as a longhunt.6 The Harmans were noted hunters and fur traders,[7] and their cabin near the Palisades was a hunting cabin—a hunting cabin with a cornfield. In fact, John Ingles refers to the place using those terms in his account of his mother’s ordeal: “It so happened that a man of the name of Adam Harmon and two of his Sones [sic] was at a place on New River where they had settled and raised some corn that summer securing their corn and Hunting.”[8] The longhunters spent extended periods of time away from home, so they built cabins to meet their need for shelter.

Approximate location of Adam Harman's hunters cabin.

Regarding the question of who established the first European settlement west of the Alleghenies, a number of German settlers are on record as having moved into the area prior to the Patton and Buchanan survey. In addition to the Harmans were a man named Frederick Starn and a group of Dunkards from the Ephrata community near Lancaster, Pennsylvania.[9] Kegley and Kegley note that there were “a number of families on the ground . . . when the Germans, the Dunkards, and the Harman group established themselves on the New River.”10 There is no mention of the 1748 date cited by Hale and Johnston as the date that the Draper-Ingles families entered the area. Furthermore, they note that George Draper “resided at Draper’s Meadows as early as 1746 when his name appears as a worker on the road from Adam Harman’s over the river.”[11]

Patricia Givens Johnson agrees that the Draper family arrived in 1746[12] and asserts that “the first permanent European settlers to come into this area were Germans,” settling there prior to 1745.[13] Johnson adds that George Draper bought land on Tom’s Creek and Strouble’s Creek from “Adam Harman acting as James Patton’s agent and Harmon set no price ‘but reffered [sic] them to make their Bargain or price with Col. Patton.’”[14] The settlement made by the Drapers, known as Draper’s Meadows, was located in the vicinity of present day Blacksburg.

[1] Giles County Book Committee, Giles County Virginia History of Families, (Pearisburg, Va.: Giles County Historical Society, 1985), 195.
[2] Today the town bears the name Eggleston in memory of Colonel William Eggleston who owned a resort in the area following the Civil War.
[3] Giles County, 195.
[4] M. B. Kegley and F. B. Kegley, 218.
[5] M. B. Kegley and F. B. Kegley, 218.
[6] For further information on the longhunters and their effect on the region, see Ted Franklin Belue, The Long Hunt: Death of the Buffalo East of the Mississippi (Mechanicsburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books 1996.
[7] Patricia Givens Johnson, 89. Also John Newton Harman, 52. Also Ullysses s. A. Heavener, German New River Settlement, Virginia, (publisher unknown, 1929), 7.
[8] John Ingles, Sr., Escape from Indian Captivity: The Story of Mary Draper Ingles and son Thomas Ingles, 2nd ed. Transcribed by William Ingles and Virginia O’Rear Hudson. Edited by Roberta ingles Steele and Andrew Lewis Ingles (Radford, Va.,: no publisher, 1982).
[9] M. B. Kegley and F. B. Kegley, 218. Also Patricia Givens Johnson, 89.
[10] M. B. Kegley and F. B. Kegley, 218.
[11] M. B. Kegley and F. B. Kegley, 212.
[12] Patricia Givens Johnson, 94.
[13] Patricia Givens Johnson, 89.
[14] Patricia Givens Johnson, 94.

Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Adam Harman: German Pioneer on the New River, Part 2

Born in Germany in about 1700, Adam Harman immigrated to America about 1726, as did six brothers: Jacob, Valentine, Mathias, George, Daniel, and John.1 Also accompanying Adam was his wife Louisa Katrina, whom he had married October 23, 1723,2 and two young sons, Adam Jr., born in Germany in 1724, and Henry, reportedly born on the Isle of Mann in 1726 during the journey to America. Early records of the Harman brothers in America can be found in and around Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, prior to 1734, in the form of land deeds and payment of quitrents.3 In 1736, Adam Harman’s name can be found in records in the area of Strasburg, Virginia, where his fifth son, Mathias was born.4 His other children included George, Daniel, Christina, Catherine, Philipina, Valentine, Jacob, and a fourth daughter, name unknown.5

According to Moravian records, Adam’s grandfather had suffered persecution in Germany for his Moravian religious beliefs, which may have led to the Harman family’s departure from Germany.[6] Evidence indicates that the Harmans had strong religious convictions. Early in their stay in America, some of them were associated with the Lutheran Church, as Adam, Jacob, and Valentine are listed as founding members of St. Peter’s Evangelical Lutheran Church, built in 1750 on land (Price’s Fork, Montgomery County, Virginia) donated from James Patton’s estate.[7] For a time on the frontier before meetinghouses were built, the settlers held services in homes, and they enjoyed an occasional traveling preacher, including Moravians. During the French and Indian War, some of the Harmans moved into the Moravian community of Bethabara in North Carolina. In later years, many of the Harmans became Methodists.8

Along with many others, Adam Harman and at least four of his brothers, Jacob, Valentine, Mathias and George, journeyed into the New River Valley by way of a path that became The Great Wagon Road. Starting in Philadelphia, the road forged westward through what is now Lancaster and York, Pennsylvania, then angled southwesterly through present day Winchester, Harrisburg, Staunton, Lexington, and Fincastle, Virginia, on about the route that I-81 takes today. Around Fincastle, the road split two ways, one going west toward locations now called Christiansburg, Wytheville, and Abingdon, Virginia, and the other going south toward present day Charlotte, North Carolina. Harman would have taken the westward branch into the New River valley.

Although close examination of records clearly shows Adam Harman on the New River as early as May 1745,[9] some confusion has resulted from conflicting records regarding the date of his arrival. The Draper-Ingles records list Adam Harman among several others traveling with them into the area in 1748.[10] For many years, the Draper-Ingles families received credit for establishing the first English speaking settlement west of the Alleghenies. However, John Newton Harman in his extensive research on the Harman family, Harman Genealogy, Biographical Sketches and Historical notes, 1700-1924, quotes an except from a May 1745 road report made by surveyors Patton and Buchanan to the County Court of Orange that points to Adam Harman’s place in the area earlier than the Draper-Ingles families. The report notes various points along the road and that the road ends at “Adam Harman’s on the New or Woods river.”[11]  

 In 1923, J. N. Harman sent this evidence to William E. Connelly, noted historian of the Mississippi Valley and president of the Kansas State Historical Society. Connelly affirmed Harman’s record-changing evidence. The following quote is taken from a statement Connelly sent to J. N. Harman: 

[The Patton and Buchanan] report was made in 1745. It is an official record and is undoubtedly authentic and entitled to full credit. It establishes the fact that Adam Harman was living at Gunpowder Springs, now known as Eggleston Springs, in what is now Giles county, Va., in 1745. As his house was already occupied and so well known as to be mentioned as the terminal of this road being established by Orange County to the westward, it must have been erected prior to 1745.
The date is three years before the accepted date of the founding of the settlement at Draper’s Meadows [sic].
So the honor and distinction of having erected the first dwelling and making the first permanent settlement of English-speaking people in the Mississippi Valley goes to that sturdy pioneer, Adam Harman. For, though he was German in blood and spoke the German tongue, he also spoke English and was fully identified with the English westward movement in Virginia. He was fully associated with the English and was a citizen of Virginia and subject of Great Britain. His settlement was an English settlement.[12]

Since the record reveals that Harman had already established his home on the New River prior to 1748, one can only speculate as to why his name appears among the list of people accompanying the Draper-Ingles families on their southwesterly journey.

Locations on the New River where Adam Harman lived.
(c) 2014, Z. T. Noble.

1 John Newton Harman, 47-49.
2 Harman Family Bible, stored at Virginia Historical Society, The Center for Virginia History, P. O. Box 7211, Richmond, VA 23211-0311. Copies of these records are in the author’s possession. Also John Newton Harman’s book contains a translation of the records, 50-51.
3 John Newton Harman, 49.
4 John Newton Harman, 50.
5 John Newton Harman, 51.
6 Patricia Givens Johnson, James Patton and the Appalachian Colonists, (Verona, Va.: McClure Printing Company, Inc., 1973), p. 89. Also Mary B. Kegley and F. B. Kegley, Early Adventures on the Western Waters, Vol. 1 (Orange, Va.: Green Publishers, Inc., 1980), 223. Also John Newton Harman, 20, 23.
7 Johnson, 30; see after page 100, the 7th page, Johnson’s photo of St. Peter’s Evangelical Lutheran Church, note names on marker. Also, John Newton Harman, 23.
8 M. B. Kegley and F. B. Kegley, 223.
9 Patton and Buchanan Survey Report, Augusta County, Virginia, Order Book 1, 1745-1747.
10 Hale, 16; Johnson, 10.
11 Patton and Buchanan Survey Report. Also Ann Brush Miller, Historic Roads of Virginia, Orange County Road Orders, 1734-1749, (Orange County Historical Society, Virginia Highway & Transportation Research Council, no date), 109. Also John Newton Harman, 49. Also, M. B. Kegley and F. B. Kegley, 217.
12 John Newton Harman, 56-57.